Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (2023)

Air Jet Weaving Machine:
Air jet weaving machine is one time of modern weaving machine with the highest weft insertion performance and are considered as the most productive in the manufacturing of light to medium weight fabrics, preferably made of cotton and certain man made fibers (sheets, shirting fabrics, linings, taffetas and satins in staple yarns of manmade fibers); it has anyway to be pointed out that technically positive results are obtained at present also with heavy weight fabrics (denims) and that some manufacturers produce also machine models for terry production. These machines are the ideal solution for those who want to produce bulk quantities of customized fabric styles. The weaving widths range generally from 190 to 400 cm. As regards the multicolor weft carrier, up to 8 different wefts can be fed. Figure 1 shows a modern air jet weaving machine.

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (1)

It has however to be considered that a air jet weaving machine requires a high energy consumption to prepare the compressed air and that this consumption rises definitely with increasing loom width and running speed. The reduction in the energy consumption is in fact one of the main concerns of the manufacturers, and builds for the user an important selection criterion.

Features of Air Jet Weaving Machine:

  1. The air jet weaving machines are the weaving machines with the highest weft insertion performance.
  2. This loom is most productive in the manufacturing of light to medium weight fabrics.
  3. Preferably made of cotton and certain man-made fibers (sheets, shirting fabrics, linings, taffetas and satins in staple yarns of man-made fibers).
  4. The air jet loom has technically positive results are obtained at present also with heavy weight fabrics (denims) and that some manufacturers produce also machine models for terry production.
  5. These machines are the ideal solution for those who want to produce bulk quantities of customized fabric styles.
  6. The weaving widths range generally from 190 to 400 cm.
  7. As regards the multicolor weft carrier, up to 8 different wefts can be fed.
  8. The air jet weaving machines require a high energy consumption to prepare the compressed air.
  9. To build compressed air, this consumption rises definitely with increasing loom width and running speed.
  10. The air jet loom also has the robust frame structure.
  11. Productivity is an essential factor of air jet looms. For its smooth warp shed, a well-balanced beating system, the best weft insertion system.
  12. Another most important feature is the machine has low vibrations.
  13. Free drum pooling system provided with the yarn-advancing reel as standard. It stabilizes insertion with less yarn break age even at high-speed weaving or extra-wide weaving. Computerized controlling system that can be easily operated or supervision.

Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine:
Air jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Figure 2 shows a schematic of air jet weaving utilizing a multiple nozzle system and profiled reed which is the most common configuration in the market. Yarn is drawn from a filling supply package by the filling feeder and each pick is measured for the filling insertion by means of a stopper. Upon release of the filling yarn by the stopper, the filling is fed into the reed tunnel via tandem and main nozzles. The tandem and main nozzle combination provides the initial acceleration, where the relay nozzles provide the high air velocity across the weave shed. Profiled reed provides guidance for the air and separates the filling yarn from the warp. A cutter is used to cut the yarn when the insertion is completed.

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (2)
(Video) Airjet Weaving Explained | Shuttleless Weaving | Fabric Manufacturing | TexConnect

The operation principle is the following: the thread, prepared in a given length (corresponding to the reed width) by pre-measuring weft carriers (Figure 3), is launched through the shed by a jet of compressed air. The typology of the weft inserting medium (no mass in motion) permits high weft insertion rates (on an average 2000-2500 meters/min and 1000 strokes/min).

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (3)

The air jet weaving machines require air ducts capable of maintaining an effective air flow on the whole weaving width. To obtain this, the machine manufacturers prefer today to use the system with profiled reed, in which the air and the thread are guided through a tunnel-shaped reed (Figure 4).

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (4)

The weft is placed in the groove formed by the reed’s profiled dents, in which it remains until the reed stroke. In the air jet weaving machines, the impulse causing weft launch is provided by a main nozzle (Figure 5), but the jet of compressed air, being blown in a room of same kind, looses very quickly its own energy. Consequently, if the weft has to be transported along reasonable widths, the use of additional gears, that is of secondary or auxiliary (or relay) nozzles is necessary; these, besides pushing the weft forward, have also the task of keeping it inside the guide channel.

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (5)

The auxiliary nozzles are stationed along the whole reed width and operate according to the relay principle; the nozzle holder blocks are connected groupwise to the distributors of compressed air by means of flexible pipes. The multi-hole relay nozzles (Figure 6) applied on modern air jet weaving machines accelerate the weft motion in the best way, at the same time reducing the stress on the yarn and helping towrds increasing machine yield and performance.

(Video) air jet loom mechanism

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (6)

The manufacturers are increasingly installing on the weft delivery side of the shed a suction nozzle which has the function of maintaining stretched the weft pending the stroke of the slay and the consequent weft binding in the fabric. This ensures a perfect stretching of the weft inside the shed with any kind of yarn, even with the most critical yarns.

Among the various optional devices offered by some manufacturers, we point out in particular the auxiliary main nozzle; the combination of an auxiliary main nozzle with the main nozzle accelerates the weft motion but under low pressure, thus avoiding damaging the yarn.

A particular characteristic of the last models of weaving machines is the automation and the supervision of the machine with the aid of microprocessors. An automatic regulation system optimizes the air pressure in the machine, adjusting it to the variations of yarn characteristics. Thanks to this system, the pressure of the main nozzles and of the relay nozzles is self-adjusting depending on the yarn structure and on the resistance opposed by the yarn to its unwinding from the bobbin, which resistance varies with the changing of the balloon shape during the progressive emptying of the bobbin. This self-adjustment of the launch parameter takes place on basis of the weft arrival time, which is detected by the sensor of the weft stop motion. The weft arrival time needs to be constant in order to get always the same tension in the yarn; otherwise the yarn gives up its ideal way of operating, causing defects in the fabric and a higher number of machine stops. This way, besides avoiding machine stops and unnecessary adjustments, the consumption of compressed air is reduced to a minimum.

The warp let-off, the pick finding device or the levelling-off device of the heald frames to avoid defects on the fabric when restarting the loom, are anyway electronically controlled. Electronic and computer controlled systems are used also for weft color selection and to prevent formation of starting marks.

(Video) Air-jet loom weft insertion system l Structure and working principle of air-jet loom

Automatic weft repair:
An important characteristic of these weaving machines is also the automatic repair of weft breakages, which on some loom models is standard equipment, while on other models is optional.

We stress the fact that air jet weaving machines are the only weaving machines which permit to repair reliably most weft defects. The automatic weft repair contributes to reduce the global down time of the machine (the automatic repair device is always ready on place, contrarily to what happens with the weaver) and improves the quality of the product. At the same time it permits to increase the number of machines allocated to the single weaver, and consequently to reduce labor costs.

The scheme of Figure 7 illustrates the sequence of the automatic weft repair proposed by an Italian manufacturer. The scheme shows how the faulty short weft is released from the fabric while a new additional weft is inserted (and the thread trimmer is temporarily disconnected); later the additional weft is cut and the relay nozzles in combination with the suction nozzle throw out the additional weft and the short weft.

Features and Working Principle of Air Jet Weaving Machine (7)

To sum up, we can say that the production flexibility of the air jet weaving machines has been definitely improved thanks to the possibility of weaving an increasingly wide range of yarns (spun yarns, glass fiber yarns, continuous filament yarns) and of using Jacquard machines for the shed formation, as today by most machine models.

(Video) Air jet loom weaving Process, Speed and types of machine

Air jet weaving machines are the easiest to be automated, as all main mechanical functions are controlled by a microprocessor. This last controls and stores efficiently the production data and provides a bi-directional communication between the machines and the main production computer. This way also the transfer of operational data, designs and adjustments can be performed on-line besides by memory card.

Finally we wish to stress the present trend of the manufacturers to develop their air jet weaving machines on the basis of their own rapier loom. This way the two machines have in common about 65% of the electronic elements, most of the accessories and make use of the same user interface.

The servicing and maintenance personnel works on machines which, apart from the different insertion systems, present a unitary structure. The possibility of exchanging the accessories and the quasi identity of the spare parts permits to save money and to reduce storage. By using both loom types (of same manufacturer), the weaver creates in the weaving room a natural integration to the advantage of versatility, productivity and quality.


(Video) Air Jet Weaving Lecture 1

  1. Handbook of Weaving by Sabit Adanur
  2. Automation in Textile Machinery: Instrumentation and Control System Design Principles By L. Ashok Kumar, M Senthil kumar

  3. Reference Books of Weaving (ACIMIT) by Giovanni Castelli, Salvatore Maietta, Giuseppe Sigrisi, Ivo Matteo Slaviero

You may also like: Conversion of Chittaranjan Hand Loom into Power Loom


What is the working principle of air jet? ›

In air jet looms, pick is inserted with the help of air pressure through the shed opened by the shedding mechanism i.e. between the two layers of warp sheet. The function of beat up mechanism is to push the weft thread that has been inserted across the warp threads in a shed, up to the fell of cloth.

What is the feature of air jet loom? ›

Features of Air Jet Loom:

In case of air jet loom, higher weft insertion performance occurred. Less power consumption in air jet loom. It needs multi-color weft insertion up to eight. Air jet loom provides higher production than others.

What is the basic principle of weaving? ›

Principles of Weaving | The Loom Room. Weaving is very simple. You essentially have two sets of threads – one set, pre-wound, called the warp, running vertically and kept under tension, and the other set threaded individually through the vertical threads, usually at right angles, called the weft.

What are the advantages of air jet weaving machine? ›

Air jet looms can further better work with heavier yarns than light yarns. The big advantages of air jet looms, compared to shuttle weaving looms for example, is that they are able to weave at a much faster rate.

What are the limitations of air jet weaving? ›

As is well known, the main disadvantage of air-jet weaving machines is their high energy costs compared to projectile and rapier weaving machines. This makes air-jet looms less preferable for companies in countries such as Turkey that suffer from very high energy costs, despite their higher production speeds.

How fast does an airjet weaving machine go? ›

The fastest ever jet-loom speed of 2,105 rpm was achieved.

What is air jet used for? ›

The air jet is used not only to provide aeration but also to suspend the particles and provide circulation. This usually means that an excessive amount of air must be used, and as a result these types of machines are not as common as mechanical cells in plants.

What are the features of modern loom? ›

The main components of the loom are the warp beam, heddles, harnesses, shuttle, reed, and take up roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes shedding, picking, battening and taking-up operations. Shedding.

What is the difference between air jet and water jet loom? ›

A water jet loom is similar to an air jet loom but uses water instead of air to transport the yarn around the shed. Water jet looms can weave very quickly whilst the yarn is not damaged as water is less abrasive than solid matter moving the yarn around (like it is with rapier weaving looms).

What are the 3 basic important operation in weaving? ›

These operations include spooling, warping and slashing. In spooling, the yarn is wound on larger spools, or cones, that are placed on a rack known as a creel.

What are the characteristics of weaving? ›

Weaving is the interlacing of two sets of yarn which inter-lace at right angles to each other. The length-wise threads are known as warps, individually they are called ends. The cross-wise threads are known as filling or weft; individually they are known as picks.

What is the function and process of weaving? ›

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braiding or plaiting.

What is the function of weaving machine? ›

Textile Encyclopedia

A weaving loom forms yarns into fabric by controlling the warp let-off and fabric takeup, the patterning of the yarns, the insertion of the filling or picks, and the beating-up of the filling yarn into the fabric.

What are weaving machines used for? ›

Any machine or device that weaves yarn into fabric. Not to be confused with loom, which requires a back and forth motion across the warp shed by the weft yarn. Most modern weaving machines only insert the weft yarn from one side, so they are not looms but weaving machines.

What is the best air jet loom in the world? ›

JAT910. As the best-selling air jet loom, the JAT series looms are used by customers all around the world.

Which type of yarn is not suitable for air jet weaving? ›

Though heavier yarns are suitable for air jet looms,lighter yarns are very difficult to control through the shed. It has also beennoticed that two heavy yarns also can't be carried across the loom by air jet.

What is tandem nozzle in air jet weaving? ›

The tandem nozzle has the job of unwinding the weft yarn from the drum feeder. The tandem nozzle thus compensates for the winding resistance. The pressure can be reduced at the main nozzle, assuring gentle yarn insertion.

What is power loom advantages and disadvantages? ›

Since power looms are mechanically powered, they were preferred over handloom since they work 10 times quickly and efficiently which leads to bulk production. But one of the drawbacks of the power loom is that is can only weave one of a kind of designs and patterns.

What are the factors that affect the efficiency of the air jet loom? ›

The common fabrics defects produced by air jet loom textile machines are weft shrinkage, hundred feet, double weft and dense road. These common faults are the main factors affecting the weaving efficiency of air jet loom textile machine.

Why does air jet weaving require high quality filling yarn? ›

Textured yarns are especially suitable for air-jet weaving due to high propelling force.

Is weaving faster than knitting? ›

Weaving is generally much faster than knitting, because the loom manipulates several threads at a time.

What is an air jet? ›

Air Jets are designed to reduce compressed air consumption and noise drastically compared to other open jets. Transvector air jets are round throated air amplifiers; one end provides a strong airflow while the other creates suction as free air is entrained.

What is the meaning of air jet? ›

: an airplane powered by a jet engine that utilizes the surrounding air in the combustion of fuel or by a rocket-type jet engine that carries its fuel and all the oxygen needed for combustion.

What is the function of main nozzle in air jet loom? ›

The main nozzle of an air jet loom plays an essential role in the weft insertion process. This role involves sucking the weft yarn from the prewinder and launching it into the reed. Simulating the dynamic behavior of the weft yarn inside the main nozzle involves fluid–structure interaction (FSI).

Which type of technology is used for weaving? ›

The ORW (Open Reed Weave) technology allows wide diversity in pattern for clothing and decorative fabrics or specially applied reinforcements in technical textiles.

What are the two types of looms used for weaving? ›

There are different types of weaving looms and these include handloom, frame loom and back strap loom.

What are the materials used in loom weaving? ›

Yarn, wool roving and threads are essential supplies for weaving.

Can water jet cut everything? ›

Waterjet cutters can cut through virtually any material, literally. This is quite a unique benefit of waterjet cutting. Most of the other cutting methods apply to cutting only metals. However, waterjet cutting can cut through even wood, glass, or any other material.

What material is commonly used for water jet cutting nozzles? ›

Nozzles are typically made of sintered boride or composite tungsten carbide. Produces a taper of less than 1 degree on most cuts, which can be reduced or eliminated entirely by slowing down the cut process or tilting the jet.

What is the difference between air jet and rapier looms? ›

(1) There are many kinds of fine count yarns produced on air jet loom textile machines, and the main types are light and thin fabrics, while rapier looms have many kinds of Coarse Count yarns, and the main types are heavy and heavy fabrics.

What are the four major operations in weaving? ›

  • WINDING. Winding consists in winding the yarn on a tube. ...
  • WARPING. This is the operation of the warp preparation. ...
  • SIZING. Sizing serves to strengthen the fine single yarns for weaving. ...
  • DRAWING IN. In order to create fabrics with different structures (eg. ...

What are the 2 components of weaving? ›

Weaving Process, Weaving Patterns, Structures, and Properties. Weaving is the process of making cloth with two components, a warp, and a weft, and can be done by very simple techniques on a complicated loom.

What are the two techniques used in weaving? ›

Basic weaving techniques include the plain weave, whereby the weft thread passes over and under each warp thread at a right angle. In a twill weave, the weft passes over two warp threads and then under one or more warp threads.

What are the 3 parts of weaving? ›

Straight edges, correct warp spacing and durability are three basic elements that help to make a quality weaving.

What are the characteristics of weaving in textile? ›

These characteristics are: thickness, areal density, fabric cover, porosity, elasticity, stiffness, drapability, resistance to creasing, air permeability, heat insulation, electric properties, breaking strength, resistance to tear, resistance to abrasion.

What is the characteristics of weaving and its place of origin? ›

The tradition of weaving traces back to Neolithic times – approximately 12,000 years ago. Even before the actual process of weaving was discovered, the basic principle of weaving was applied to interlace branches and twigs to create fences, shelters and baskets for protection.

Which motor is used in weaving machine? ›

Especially when it comes to the stitch weaving, they take over the work of the stitch drive axes. Also for the precise winding of textile yarn, the machine engineers prefer to use linear motors.

What fabrics are made on Airjet loom? ›

Air-jet looms are capable of weaving plaids, as well as dobby and jacquard fabrics.

Who invented the air jet loom? ›

Sakichi Toyoda, the founder of Toyota Industries Corporation, devoted his passion to the invention of automatic looms. Inheriting such dedication, our air-jet looms have evolved into a product that incorporates a number of advanced technologies and continue to claim the No.

What is the size of air jet loom? ›

Air Jet Looms : 3100 * 1200 * 1500 mm, For weaving fabrics, 2.2 KW, 800 Meters/day Supplier.

What is air jet fabric? ›

4 Air-jet spun yarns. Air-jet spun yarns have a two-layered yarn structure. The core fibres have no twist and are wrapped with fibres as in a rotor spun yarn. Air-jet yarn is less extensible due to the untwisted, straight and parallel arrangement of core fibres constituting 90% of the yarn.

What are the properties of air-jet yarn? ›

As compared to ring spun yarns, air-jet spun yarns has high bending rigidity; low hairiness; high evenness; a low count of neps, slubs, thick and thin places; and low abrasion resistance. These characteristics make it suitable for the use in the pile of terry fabrics, but not in the ground (Fig.

How does a weaving machine work? ›

A loom is any machine or device that holds the threads and helps you weave them. You stretch out one set of threads, the “warp”, parallel on the loom. Another thread, the “weft”, goes over and under the warp threads, back and forth, again and again, to create the woven fabric.

What are relay nozzles in airjet weaving used to maintain? ›

The multi-hole relay nozzles (Figure 6) applied on modern air jet weaving machines accelerate the weft motion in the best way, at the same time reducing the stress on the yarn and helping towrds increasing machine yield and performance.

What size are airjet looms? ›

Available widths: 430 cm, 460 cm, 540 cm.


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